• 1970
    At Philips, Compaan and Pete Kramer complete a glass disc prototype and determine that a laser will be needed to read the information.
  • 1972
    Compaan and Kramer produce color prototype of this new compact disc technology
  • 1973
    BBC and other broadcast companies start installing digital recorders for master recordings.
  • 1977
    Mitsubishi, Hitachi & Sony show digital audio disc prototypes at the Tokyo Audio Fair..JVC Develops Digital Audio Process
  • 1978
    Philips releases the video disc player.
    Sony sells the PCM-1600 and PCM-1 (digital audio processors).
    "Digital Audio Disc Convention" Held in Tokyo, Japan with 35 different manufacturers.
    Philips proposes that a worldwide standard be set.
    Polygram (division of Philips) determined that polycarbonate would be the best material for the CD.
    Decision made for data on a CD to start on the inside and spiral towards the outer edge.
    Disc diameter originally set at 115mm.
    Type of laser selected for CD Players.
  • 1979
    Sony agrees to join in collaboration.
    Sony & Philips compromise on the standard sampling rate of a CD -- 44.1 kHz (44,100 samples per second).
    Philips accepts Sony's proposal for 16-bit audio.
    Reed-Solomon code adopted after Sony's suggestion.
    Maximum playing time decided to be slightly more that 74 minutes.
    Disc diameter changed to 120mm to allow for 74 minutes of 16-bit stereo sound with a sample rate of 44.1 kHz
    Prototype CD System demonstrated in Europe and Japan.
  • 1980
    Compact Disc standard proposed by Philips & Sony.
  • 1981
    Matsushita accepts Compact Disc Standard.
    Digital Audio Disc Committee also accepts Compact Disc Standard.
    Sharp achieves production of semiconductor laser.
    Philips & Sony collaboration ends.
  • 1982
    Sony & Philips both have product ready to go.
    Compact Disc Technology is introduced to Europe and Japan in the fall.
  • 1983
    Compact Disc Technology is introduced in the United States in the spring.
    The Compact Disc Group formed to help market.
    CD-ROM Prototypes shown to public.
    30,000 Players sold in the U.S.
    800,000 CD's sold in the U.S.
  • 1984
    Second Generation & Car CD players introduced.
    First Mass Replication Plant in the United States built.
    Portable (i.e., Sony DiscMan) CD Players sold.
  • 1985
    Third generation CD Players released.
    CD-ROM drives hit the computer market.
  • 1986
    CD-I (Interactive CD) concept created.
    3 Million Players sold in U.S.
    53 Million CD's sold in U.S.
  • 1987
    Video CD format created.
    Allen Adkins of Optical Media International joins with SonoPress in Amsterdam and demonstrates a desktop system for pre-mastering CD's (Adkins and SonoPress, produced a replicated CD in less than 24-hours).
  • 1988
    CD-Recordable Disc/Recorder Technology Introduced
  • 1990
    28% of all U.S. households have CD's.
    9.2 million players sold annually in the United States.
    288 million CD's sold annually in the United States.
    World Sales close to 1 Billion
  • 1991
    CD-I format achieved.
    CD-Recordable Introduced to the Market.
    "QuickTopix" the first CD-R pre-mastering Software introduced by Allen Adkins.
  • 1992
    CD-R Sales reach 200,000
  • 1996
    DVD Technology Introduced.
    Prices of Recorders and CD-R Media go down significantly.
    High Demands cause World-Wide CD-R Media Shortage.
  • Washington native, James T. Russell patented the original CD in 1965.
  • During its refinement in the early 1970’s, James plotted the technology to burn holes, via laser, in pits into plastic coated disc and each “pit” or “hole” would characterize a sound or noise.
  • Sony eventually purchased the license to create CD’s from James
  • Sony in the mid-1985 began to churn out some of its popular artists on CD.
  • Compact discs produced today are encoded with an anti-copying mechanism to prevent piracy.
  • Only a small fraction of the money earned on a cd goes to the band itself.
  • Most of the profits made by the record company are spent on advertising and manufacturing costs.
  • The average cost to manufacture a CD is $2 to $4.
  • Understanding CD
  • A CD can store up to 74 minutes of music.
  • The total amount of digital data that must be stored on a CD is:
    44,100 samples/channel/second x 2 bytes/sample x 2 channels x 74 minutes x 60 seconds/minute = 783,216,000 bytes
  • To fit more than 783 megabytes (MB) onto a disc only 4.8 inches (12 cm) in diameter requires that the individual bytes be very small.
  • By examining the physical construction of a CD, you can begin to understand just how small these bytes are.
  • Standards and specifications
  • Red Book - 1980 standard document that contains specifications for CD-DA (CD-Digital Audio)
  • Subsequent CD formats (as well as DVD formats) all follow the basic Red Book specification.
  • Yellow Book - which, in conjunction with other standards, details the specifications for CD-ROM and CD-ROM XA
  • Orange Book - which details the specifications for CD-R, CD-WO, CD-RW, and CD-MO
  • White Book - which details the specifications for various multimedia disks, such as Video CD
  • Green Book - which details the specifications for CD-i
  • Blue Book - which details the specifications for enhanced CD
  • Scarlet Book - which details the specifications for Super Audio CD
  • Purple Book - which specifies the Double Density CD (DDCD)